Features of Line Organisation 2. This affects their creativity and capacity for independent thinking. One of the main features of this organization is that a functional manager can exercise functional authority over his own sub-ordinate but also over all sub ordinates in all other functional departments. Staff and line are names given to different types of functions in organizations. (4) There is no question as to responsibility or authority. At departmental level manager is in charge and he can direct the activities of his juniors. There can be reduction of initiative power o line authority. Uploader Agreement. This type is also known as scalar organisation. 7. READ MORE on smallbusiness.chron.com. Such a structure is best suited to smaller companies. Organizational structure is only one of many aspects of organizational design. His task is challenging and he is expected to discharge his responsibility in an efficient way. He can take a decision according to the requirements of the situation. (ix) Lines of authority are vertical i.e. 4. Each department is under the control of a departmental manager who is responsible to the superior over him. Superior at each level makes decisions within the scope of his authority. (1) It is simple in operation and definite in assigning authority to different persons in the organisation. The term military organisation is, therefore, rather misleading. Above all the departmental heads, there is a general manager to whom all the department heads are responsible. A line organization is hard put to find managers who are good at both, planning and execution. Line-staff organization, in management, approach in which authorities (e.g., managers) establish goals and directives that are then fulfilled by staff and other workers. There should be a hierarchical arrangement of giving commands. It is modification of line organization and is more complex than it. There is better utilization of personnel skills and knowledge. In line organisation, every manager exercises a direct authority over subordinates who are directly responsible to their superiors. And because the army is known to be organized on the same pattern, it is also called “military organization.”. Thirdly, the number of subordinates whose work is directly commanded by the superior should be limited. (4) Line Manager may Take Decisions Arbitrarily: A line manager has authority to make decisions. The authority should be commensurate with the work assigned. Under this, the line of authority flows vertically downward from top to bottom throughout the organization. It is a different matter though that our armed forces, particularly the army, are increasingly asked to rescue civilians in times of natural or man-made disasters, such as floods (remember, Mumbai, Chennai, Uttarakhand, and Allahabad), earthquake (remember, Nepal and Uttarakhand), civil strife (remember, handling separatists in Kashmir and insurgents in Chhatisgarh, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh). (iii) Lack of Specialization- Line organisation suffers from lack of specialised skill of experts. They have staff wings like intelligence, medical and so on. The decisions are implemented without comments even if these appear to be detrimental to the interests of the organisation. All departmental heads try to run the departments in their own way and according to their suitability. The number of subordinates should be such that they are properly supervised. (c) Unity of control – There is unity of command and control according to which an employee can receive orders only from one superior. (ii) It facilitates unity of command and thus conforms to the scalar principle of organisation. Since they are to take decisions with regard to every aspect of business, the quality of decisions may suffer. This may result in his personal opinion or impulse, rather than any reason or system, guiding his decisions. Line organization is the most oldest and simplest method of administrative organization. There are no staff personnel for consultation too. Although an executive can delegate authority, he has ultimate responsibility for results. There is a direct link between the superior and his subordinate, both can communicate properly among themselves. It is not suitable for large organization 7. (iii) Strong discipline – It ensures excellent discipline. Traditional line organizational structures are simplistic but rigid. The subordinates start keeping distance from the superiors. Narrow vision of departmental specialist creates problems in functional organizational. 6. Since the manager has to take all important decisions, he can make changes if new situation warrants. 7. Other aspects would include the nature of an organization’ s leadership, the various systems operating in According to this type of organization, the authority flows from top to bottom in a concern. Management, Organisation, Structure, Line Organisational Structure. 5. It is extremely difficult for one person to handle activities of diverse nature. Line organizational structure template to design line org charts. In line organisation only departmental head is required to take decisions and he will not waste time in deciding things. All managerial functions are practiced by line authority with the help of specialized skill of staff authority. Staff authorities’ means authority to advice, support and serve the line managers. The quantum of authority is highest at the top and reduces at each successive level down the hierarchy. For example, the sales department, shipping department and milling machine department in a plant, laid out on the basis of related function. Again, even within a department, there may be several sub-departments. Many subordinates do so because they lack ability to judge whether the decision is right or wrong, but the mischievous ones among them may carry out even apparently wrong decisions to pinpoint the incompetence of manager. Only one form of authority that is line authority exists in this form of organization. There is separation of mental and manual work. Authority travels downwards from top and accountability upwards from bottom along the chain of command, and each department manager has control over his or her department A line-staff organizational structure attempts to render a large and complex enterprise more flexible without sacrificing managerial authority. The authority flows from top levels to the lower levels. And others may be good at execution but not so when it. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); It is the simplest and oldest form of organizational structure. What happens when a department manager wants to pass some message to a subordinate in another department? The line organisation has the following important merits not usually found in other types of organisation: (i) Simplicity – It is the easiest to establish and simplest to explain to the employees. There is better decision taking and improvement in efficiency. Line and staff organization structure In this type of organization structure two type of authority relationship exists. It is the simplest of all types of organizations. In a highly centralized structure, decisions are made by a few executives or managers … 4. For this reason, it is given the name “line organization”. This is known by different names, i.e. (vii) There is a hierarchical arrangement of authority. Every person is accountable to only one person i.e. It is also known as scalar organisation or military type of organisation. Each of these departments will report directly to the supervisor above them. Organizational chart Matrix management Organizational structure Business, organization chart PNG size: 1024x572px filesize: 206.74KB 3. Staff specialists give relief in critical matters. (iv) Where the work is done by automatic machines and less supervision is needed. Staff managers and line managers are distinguished on the basis of their role. It confirms scalar principle of organization where one subordinate receives the orders from single superior. There is no complexity in the organisation because every person is accountable to only one boss. In the line organization, the line of authority moves directly from the top level to the lowest level in a step-by-step manner. Similarly, each person derives authority from the superior above him. Conditions for Success of Line Organisation 3. This is suitable only for businesses which are run on a small-scale producing only one item and in which the workers are divided into departments according to the type of work performed by each one of them. Line managers may be too much dependent upon the staff authority. All other types of organization structure have mostly been either modifications of this organization. The self-contained department structure can be seen as its main characteristic. Report a Violation 11. The concept of line organization holds that in any organization derived from a scalar process, there must be a single head who commands it. The top-level managers are overloaded with work. The subordinates do not convey their reactions or the reactions of workers to the superiors. The modern military organisations do not entirely rely on line organisation. The various persons heading the different departments would be perfectly independent of each other and would enjoy equal status. Unified Control- Since the orders are given by one superior, there is no confusion among the subordinates. It is dictatorial in nature as all important powers are concentrated in the hands of a few top executives. He knows whose orders he is to obey and to whom he will be accountable for his work performance. The executive may appoint and promote his own men in various positions ignoring the claim of efficient persons. This ensures better understanding and quick action. There is two-way communications i.e. from top to bottom 6. Line organization assumes that direct authority is exercised by a superior over his subordinates. Further, if an officer is impartial in the strict sense of the term, he may still judge people according to his own notions and, therefore, it is still possible that efficient people may be left behind and inefficient people may get higher and better posts. This is because of unified control. military, vertical, scalar, departmental organization. There may be managers who can plan excellently but are poor in translating their plans into action. Chacune des divisions du Line est autonome et doit respecter des objectifs à atteindre en termes de coûts, d'organisation, de nombre de salariés, de chiffre d'affaires, etc. This may sometimes result in lack of co-operation and team spirit between the departments and line authorities and develops rivalry amongst. Solid lines represent your primary reporting path. in line organization department are created for basic activities and departmental heads are responsible for all activities performed in the department. Each of these has their own advantages and drawbacks. The line organization structure is the simplest and oldest, known as the chain of command or scalar principle. It is also known as the military system as this type of organization is usually found in the army. According to Allen, “Organizationally, the line is the chain of command that extends from the board of directors through the various delegations and re-delegation of authority and responsibility to the point where the primary activities of the enterprise are performed.”. (3) Instructions are given direct from the boss to his subordinate enabling instructions to move in a direct line without any interruption. Line organisation suffers from lack of specialised skill of experts. Content Guidelines 2. Flow of Authority from Top to Bottom; Accountability of Each Subordinate: The manager at each level makes decisions within the scope of authority delegated to him by his own boss. The top-level managers are not overloaded with work. Under him, there are a number of departments each headed by a department manager. Only one person is in charge of a department or division. Dotted line reporting, by … The executive may appoint and promote his own men in various positions ignoring the claim of efficient persons. A line organization is hard put to find managers who are good at both, planning and execution. Since all work is done according to the wishes of one person alone, the efficiency of the whole department will come to depend upon the qualities of management displayed by the head of that department. In line organisation every person is under the command of one boss only. Any departure from this scheme may create problems. The reactions of subordinates also reach top management in a short span of time. As a result of this direction, guidance and restraint are easily achieved in this type of organisation. It is still used by many concerns especially the small ones. 2. Each person in the ‘organization structure’ has authority over subordinates holding positions lower than him. Thus, this system can be successfully practised where: (a) The business is carried on a small scale with a small number of subordinates and operatives. (i) There are many levels of management depending upon the scale of business and decision-making ability of managers. In line organisation, each department is generally a complete self- sustaining unit. There should be a single line of command. If they are not able the enterprise will not be successful. Instruction is given by the boss directly to his subordinates. (iv) It ensures excellent discipline in the enterprise because every—individual knows to whom he is responsible. (d) Scope for favouritism – There may be a good deal of nepotism and jobbery. All persons at the same level of authority should be independent of one another. The boxes represent employees, teams or departments, and lines show who they report to. Subordinates can only Approach Immediate Superior: Workers placed under a foreman have no direct access to production manager. 4. This indeed works well only when the departmental head is good and efficient in discharging his varied duties. It clearly defines the authority, responsibility and accountability of a job 3. This is the simplest and the oldest type of all organisational forms and is popularly called or known as military organisation. 3. Line organization structure It is the simplest and oldest form of organizational structure. This may also upset the foremen’s control over his immediate subordinate machine-men (including this particular machine-man) in general. Demerits of functional organization 1. Each unit is placed under a commander and his word is final as far as his subordinates are concerned. Merits of line and staff organization structure: 1. The chain of command goes from top to bottom. The authority is given with reference to the assignment of task. A line organization is easy to establish. Communication- Communication is fast and easy as there is only vertical flow of communication. The authority flows from top to the lower levels. The authority is embedded in the hierarchical structure and it flows in a direct line from the top of the managerial hierarchy down to different levels of managers and subordinates and further down to the operative levels of workers. Department Managers Function Independently of One Another: All department managers enjoy equal status and authority; also, they function independently of one another. (iv) Fixed responsibility – Everybody in this type of organisation knows to whom he is responsible, and who are responsible to him. There is replacement problem during absenteeism of top authority 9. The work load of executives goes on increasing with the expansion and diversification of the unit. They are staff and line authority. He may neglect some of the duties and there may be inefficiency in management. Further, the span of supervision theory says no executive in a line organization should be burdened with supervising more than a manage­able number of subordinates. There is delay in decision-making. (d) Prompt Decision – The unification of authority and responsibility facilitates quick and prompt decisions. Disclaimer 8. This is known by different names, i.e. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Staff managers can complain that their advice is not properly implemented. (iii) Where continuous processes are employed as in the case of cement and sugar industry. Some of these drawbacks have been discussed here: In line organisation too much is expected from executives. Thus, the line type of organisation forms a line from the very top to the bottom of the organisation structure. It can be easily adapted to the requirement of the organization. Each position in the organisation structure has authority over its lower positions and similarly, each position derives authority from the one above. Even if top-level managers are not capable there is no failure because staff managers can help to overcome the problematic issues through proper decisions and specialization. Suitability 6. (ii) There is concentration of authority at the top. The business is dependent upon some key persons and the sudden disappearance of such persons from the scene may create instability in the business. Modern business is so complex that it is extremely difficult for one person to carry in his head all the necessary details about his work in his department. For example, at the lowest levels, all workers may perform a similar activity, but for control and supervision they may be divided into different groups, each placed under a foreman. It is also worth mentioning here that the co-ordination on the basis of co­operation is rather enforced by the supervisor who will be in charge of two or three units. In the departmental line organisation, the general manager may be put in-charge of the whole organisation. Demerits of line organization 1. It is extremely difficult for one person to handle activities of diverse nature. No, he cannot have any direct communication with the said subordinate. Every manager is required to incorporate these activities in his department. Organizational structures developed from the ancient times of hunters and collectors in tribal organizations through highly royal and clerical power structures to industrial structures and today's post-industrial structures. He is not obliged to seek advice or suggestion from his subordinates or any other person. Lines on the chart connect work positions, showing. Content Filtration 6. A departmental head receives orders from the general manager and passes them on to his immediate subordinates. Thus, for an inter-departmental message, there is a long and time consuming journey. The line of command is carried out from top to bottom. 2. Line organization is also known as vertical organization or departmental organization. This helps an executive to learn many things and develop his capabilities. The ‘Commander- in-Chief’ is at the top with various other officers at the lower levels. The line organisation can be of two types, viz. Good and efficient emperors were able to achieve a great deal whereas an inefficient and weak emperor spoilt everything. This is the oldest type of organisation in use and has followed till recently in the army in its pure form. The concept of line organization holds that in any organization derived from a scalar process, there must be a single head who commands it. They are only required to do as told to them by respective managers. This form of organisation is followed in military establishments. Further promotion of the workers would depend upon the reports made about them by the foreman concerned. Line Organisation is the oldest form of organization. There may be a good deal of nepotism and jobbery and personal prejudices. The business unit may be divided into departments headed by departmental heads. It is more complex than line concern. 2. Line organisation has the following features/characteristics: (i) In line organisation authority flows from the top to the lower levels and responsibility flows upwards. Image Guidelines 4. (ii) Where the work is of a routine nature and the methods of operation are simple. This is the oldest form of organization. Many jobs require specialized knowledge to perform them. Authority flows directly from top to bottom through various managerial positions. The allocation of work will also help in fixing responsibility of various individuals. The line officers cannot be experts in every line of business. Not all managers can come up to this expectation. In case, the manager of one department wishes to issue guidance or directions to a subordinate in another department, he will go up the line and convey the message to the top manager who will then pass it down the line in the other department. Staff authority however is not accountable for the result. The workers placed under a foreman get all their orders from their own foreman and they have no direct access to the factory superintendent. In the line organization there is a vertical line of authority. Employees are fully aware of the boundaries of their jobs. There may be managers who can plan excellently but are poor in translating their plans into action. Since the departmental head has to look after all the activities of his department, he is over burdened with work. It is simple form of organization. (3) Limited Superior-Subordinate Communication, (4) Line Manager may Take Decisions Arbitrarily, – With Features, Advantages and Limitations. There is wide difference between the approach of line managers and staff managers. (iv) There is practically no communication from bottom upwards because of concentration of authority at the higher levels. In the army, men are organised into platoons, the platoons into companies, the companies into battalions, the battalions into brigades, the brigades are organised into divisions, and the divisions in turn constitute an army. Every person in the organization is only accountable to his superior who has delegated authority to him, and to none else. Principes des structures hiérarchiques et fonctionnelles. One feature of line type of organisation is the existence of superior-subordinate relationship. Strong Discipline- Because of direct authority-responsibility relationships, discipline can be maintained more effectively. (ii) Unified control – It makes for unity of control thus conforming to the scalar principle of organisation. This enables a manager to take prompt decisions. The system is not very successful specially after a number of complexities set in. This is the simplest and oldest, known as chain of command or scalar principle. (v) It facilitates prompt decision-making because there is definite authority at every level. In a departmental line organization, there is a chief executive at the top. It can take a good deal of time for information to pass through the company, with each link reporting to ONE direct supervisor. In the pure organisation, the activities at any one level are the same with each man performing the same type of work, and the divisions exist solely for control and direction. The line organisation represents the structure in a direct vertical relationship through which authority flows. This video explains the different forms of organisation structure in great detail. The quantum of authority is highest at the top and reduces at each successive level down the hierarchy. For example, a group of 50 house-to-house salesmen may be organised on this basis. i. Simplicity- Simple to understand and develop. Managers have exclusive authority over their unit, so they can easily make changes in the functioning of the unit when required 5. 3. there is lack of mutual understanding and coordination of activities of different department 4. Everything you need to know about the line organisational . In setting the departments, the similarity of function is taken into account. They judge the performance of persons according to their own likings. It means a subordinate is responsible to only one superior. In this type of organisation, the whole unit is divided into different departments that are convenient for control purposes. Everybody is responsible for his work and is accountable to his boss. The subordinates may similarly communicate the order to the workers. According to McFarland, “Line structure consists of the direct vertical relationship which connects the positions and tasks of each level with those above and below it.”. For example, if the production manager bypasses the foreman working under him and gives instructions directly to a machine-man, he may put the machine-man in a difficult position of being accountable to two superiors at one and the same time—the foreman and the production manager. The authority responsibility relationship is clearly established. The lack of communication creates many problems for the smooth conduct of business. This makes the line of authority straight and vertical. 3. This means relying a little too much on their individual capability, knowledge and experience. The principle of unity of command is not applied in his type of organizational structure. There are majorly five main types of formal organizational structures – line, functional, line and staff, project management and matrix. Each foreman works independently, without any formal line of authority or responsibility with other foremen and takes orders from his superior or superintendent to whom he is directly responsible. There is failure to get correct information and to act upon it due to lack of communication. In recent times, however, the military organisations have undergone changes similar to those occurring in the industrial and other organisations. 4. Displaying the positions within an organization, an organizational chart shows a company's structure. The lack of managerial specialisation is the demerit of line organisation. Secondly, there should be only one chain, i.e., command should be received from only one immediate superior. All other types of organization structure have mostly been either modifications of this organization. The officers will have to depend heavily on subordinates for advice. It can be autocratic. 1. The functions are divided into units like marketing, production, research and development, human resource etc. Une structure staff & line repose essentiellement sur le principe hiérarchique d’unicité de la gestion et sur celui du recours à des organes de conseil composés de spécialistes : les responsables hiérarchiques bénéficient de l’assistance de conseillers pour des domaines d’activité précis. Here each department is given under supervision of specialist. This type of organisation helps in co-ordination and control. Direct supervision and control also helps in maintaining strong discipline among the workers. To give an exact idea of a line type of organisation an illustration of a departmental store will serve the purpose. 6. Each level of management has equal rights. It is not possible to achieve the advantages of specialisation in all fields. The managerial growth also suffers because lower level persons are not involved in decision-making process. 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