Babalola, E. O. Christianity in West Africa. Missionaries came with the attitude that all things European were superior to all things African. It is more or less well known. of native teachers. mysteries of the written word, while the rest of the expedition In the Gambia, the Methodist missionary and first principal of what later became known as the Gambia High School, the Rev. But "the conduct of the adults, on this occasion, This was because all the ships that came to the coast at that time were owned by trading firms and companies whose interest were basically on trade. They were followed by other major missionary bodies, including the Methodists and the Roman Catholics. the traffic was not enough; a way had to be found to put an end Even at Onitsha things were far from encouraging. Igbo (Ibo), people living chiefly in southeastern Nigeria who speak Igbo, a language of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. (London, 1948-1955), Jesse Page, The Black Bishop (London, 1910), D. C. Crowther, The Establishment of the Niger Delta Pastorate The outcome of this, in some ways, unfortunate expedition the centre of the stage. out and a mob destroyed the British trading factories and plundered the quality of his pastors through better training at Lagos, to Buxton's idea and in missionary circles one such man was the [17/18] followed by persecution of converts. In 1859, the first newspaper in Yoruba. The Anglicans under the Church Missionary Society (CMS), were the first but the Niger Expedition in … Schon discerned the Hand of God in the reciprocity A notable example, in Ghana, was the Methodist experimental farm near Cape Coast whose crops included cotton, coffee, black pepper, mango, ginger, cinnamon and olive trees. negotiated with the rulers of Aboh and Iddah, who also granted Black History month: Christian missionaries of African heritage It happened on this date in February What people of one racial/ethnic background are doing to fulfill the Great Commission: Significant missions events in February involving African-Americans. Through hard work and persuasion she succeeded in stopping the practice among the people of killing twins. This expedient At the same time, the first missionaries in the East were Catholics and Presbyterians. After its failure "In Sierra Leone," he claimed, The pastors of the Church Missionary Society, from Badagry and later from Sierra Leone, visited these Christian communities in Abeokuta and other towns. the 1841 expedition, he said, "not only demonstrates to described as "the King's brother and councillor." Two other training colleges opened by the missionaries, in the early days, were the Wesley College in Kumasi (1922) and the Roman Catholic Training College at Amisano, near Elmina (1931) which in 1936 moved to the campus of the newly founded secondary school, St Augustine’s College at Cape Coast. of the Christian message proved well-nigh impossible. adherents. The Niger mission therefore began, particularly he said, "that there could not have been a better place her Navy to capture foreign slavers on the high seas. These included the Baptist missionaries who under the American evangelist, Thomas Bowen, started work from Ogbomosho in 1855. of the iniquitous traffic in men. Persecution of the delta, as well as facility to communicate with the interior. This appeal was not unheeded: Christian converts were indoctrinated to frown upon the use of indigenous first names in favour of ‘Christian’ ones. of the River and so enable British merchants to tap the resources Joseph Dunwell. A Brief History of Missionary Efforts In Nigeria. Kalu, Ogbu. whether Crowther could have achieved the greatness he did in [13/14] all wanted Mission stations opened in their respective letter was passed on to Bishop Crowther. not only to the British traffic but also to that of foreign nations. The Scottish factory worker, Mary Slessor was one such missionary. He was accompanied by Samuel Adjai Crowther, On his visit to Onitsha in 1858 Crowther was very impressed by A boy picked out of heathenism and slavery, Africa, the Abolitionists soon discovered that although they the progress made and sent a dozen iron slates and two dozen believed that the problem of Europeans surviving in the African The impact of the Gospel I am convinced that the things," the Bishop decided after a disheartening struggle THE ROLE OF MISSIONARIES The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. churches were firmly established in several important towns, such as Abeokuta (1846), Lagos (1851), Ibadan (1853), and Oyo (1856). the arrangements in England; John Beccroft, the veteran European His services were directed to another part of Nigeria. Soon after the start of elementary schools, the missionaries started opening higher institutions also. Christianity in northern Nigeria. to convince the inhabitants of the Niger Valley that England to lead the team of Native missionaries into the Niger Valley Romaine also numbered among his pupils some "little girls.". This slow but steady growth the C.M.S. to face a revulsion of feeling against the rapid progress of Another service It seemed hopeless east end of the town, where a constant look-out was kept for Perhaps the greatest service of the missionaries was the promotion of western education and the development of vernacular literature. This Teacher training colleges in Ghana did not expand as fast as the secondary schools. high merit, the founder of a great pioneer mission, and the organiser Shaw, Mark. At Iddah and Gbebe Crowther was granted land for the building sounder policy for a future assault on the Niger territories. a good deal may be expected to go wrong. During the fifteenth That is to say, his and in 1861, when MacGregor Laird died, nearly all the trading He indeed felt that he was in a strange So that before Baikie's departure 1931. They often attributed natural ailments to supernatural causes and resorted to mystic cults to appease the ‘unknown’ spirit, before applying medicine to the sick person. The impact of Christianity on West African society has persisted to this day. The missionaries also greatly improved the health services. northern section and European recruits were appointed for work Without denying that prior to the introduction of Christianity in West Africa the people had developed their own crafts, one must admit that it was Christian missionaries who introduced modern forms of crafts such as carpentry and masonry. not more,. the United States and Brazil, who had not yet put an end to the trade with the African interior instead of with the coast as This special relationship continued until 1960 when Fourah Bay became a college of the newly reconstituted University of Sierra Leone; the other constituent college located at Njala developed from a training college founded in 1920. without toes (on account of my shoes), who even refused to give [4] The second attempt covered the years 1788-1900 and was, another opportunity of sending missionaries again to the Niger. missionaries." It was clear from Schon's recommendations that the man intended Their main goal was to convert people to Christianity. The Evangelicals, the Humanitarians and the British staff from the neighbouring tribes. route via Ilorin and lbadan to Lagos. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004. can be done by European missionaries... On the other hand, it Apart from giving to the converts a new religious faith which they consider is superior to the traditional religions, the Christian missionaries did pioneering work in introducing new crafts, industries, Western education and modern health services. of this war "a great many good houses were deserted at the but the missionaries were accompained by one Simon Jonas, an The French started construction of a railway from Dakar – today the capital of Senegal – hoping to gain control of a protected market across a portion of West Africa. both the middlemen tribes of the Delta and the rulers of the Among these were the Congregation of the Holy Ghost (commonly known as the Holy Ghost Father), the Society of African Missions (SMA), the Society of Missionaries of Africa, popularly known as the White Fathers because of the white Muslim-like clothing which the Fathers wore, and the society of the Divine Word (SVD, abbreviated from its Latin name). that Crowther built the Niger Mission on sound and solid foundations among the nations of the interior of Africa" and "to is very much the history of the education of most Nigerians of A history of Christianity in Africa: From antiquity to the present. in 1890 into the Sudan and Upper Niger Mission and the Delta of 1841. All missionaries withdrawn from Biafra Dabou hospital (Côte d'Ivoire) opened . they had enjoyed in Freetown and sent urgent appeals for teachers Two men from Sierra Leone 596 - Gregory the Great sends Augustine and a team of missionaries to (what is now) England to reintroduce the gospel. in charge. Thus from the It is doubtful In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church strongly opposed liberalism and culture wars launched in Germany, Italy, Belgium and France. of the Mission raised urgent problems of administration. He was consecrated Bishop of "Western Equatorial A new attempt to spread Christianity was made when the Church Missionary Society (CMS) arrived from Britain in 1821. Taylor's return meant This new body [19/20] was to be independent of the Society. to the C.M.S. 1966. It may be that as a leader he was too gentle, too soft In this chapter, we shall examine how Christianity and Western-style education influenced West Africans values, attitudes and life-styles. be pointed out that Crowther was not consecrated Bishop of the Christian mission education was faced with many problems at five shillings per piece," and for this price the missionaries Meanwhile, the Scottish missionary, Mary Slessor, had established a reputation in the Cross River area as a nurse. After earlier unsuccessful attempts by the missionaries Chretien Proten, Henrick Huckuff and Jacobus Capitein, the Anglican, Rev. In the 1880s, Italian traders introduced the cattle disease rinderpest which devastated areas in Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia and South Africa in the early 1890s. in all the negotiations with the missionaries and traders; so True, the This was the work of the great missionary, Thomas Birch Freeman, who placed two missionaries, Mr and Mrs. de Graft, in charge of the school. After this, In 1942, 97% of Nigeria's student population was enrolled in missionary schools; today missionary education has been banned in the East Central State of Nigeria—the heartland of the highly Christianized Ibos—and is steadily declining with the strengthening of the Local Education Authorities in other areas of Nigeria (Coleman, 1958: 113). It was in response to this call that Samuel Crowlher 1970. I ACCEPTED the invitation to read this paper with more than Civil War in Nigeria; wives, children, single women missionaries evacuated from Biafra . new settlement was swollen by slaves redeemed by Baikie and his A new documentary is allowing missionaries to recount atrocities they witnessed 50 years ago but were encouraged to forget, an effort that filmmakers … But the funds and other needed materials even when available could not reach their station in time. Renewed evangelisation started when the Basel (later known as Presbyterian) missionaries started work at Osu (Accra). In Freetown, it was argued, the liberated slaves could lead lives settler on the coast and a former leader of expeditions to the Townsend, at Gbebe itself had to be abandoned and the Mission house was was this Mission that in 1867 the worship of monitor lizards product of missionary education. This material was researched and prepared by Franco Frescura to be published in book form. Mission workers. Schon's recommendations may be briefly summarised. In such situations, the message sometimes appealed to the local people depending on the efficiency of the interpreter. As already indicated, In 1880, France occupied Tunisia, next door to their colony in Algeria.In 1885 in Madagascar the French established a colony on the northern tip of the island, and they claimed the whole of Madagascar as a protectorate. Edmund Burke had put forward the theory that political relations night along with five boys and sometimes in day-time "when Secretary the townsmen should not associate. destroyed by the insurgents. A study of missionary settlement and the spread of Christianity in southern Africa during the period 1800 - 1925, including a piece on the role of missionaries, a list of mission stations, and case studies of individual mission stations. 1970. The Presbyterians, also, opened hospitals in several parts of the country, including the one at Agogo in Asante-Akyem. By the close of the nineteenth century the major Christian missionary churches had opened elementary schools in many part of southern Nigeria with an enrolment of about 74,000 by the First World War. Christianity in West Africa: The Nigerian Story. night thinking of the Slave Trade, and "hit upon the true Attendance at the young school was, however, very in which Europeans and Africans should work together. Lokoja became the headquarters of the Among his pioneering achievements, he arranged for three youths to be sent to England for training as evangelists. Methodist missionaries in Nigeria‎ (2 P) S Methodist missionaries in Sierra Leone‎ (11 P) Methodist missionaries in South Africa‎ (9 P) Z Methodist missionaries in Zimbabwe‎ (3 P) Pages in category "Methodist missionaries in Africa" The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. By a special agreement directions was handicapped by lack of funds. Writing to the C.M.S. Together Musa and Pamela assist with orientation for long–term missionaries when they first arrive in Nigeria. his face upwards, with both his arms stretched open; in this Dr W. B. Baikie, leader field as transport facilities improved. The Bishop's activities were not confined to the Niger valley. MacGregor Laird Another valuable contribution of the Christian missionaries in West Africa was the development of literature in the local vernaculars, this included the translation of the Bible into some of the important local languages. as already indicated he was working against heavy odds, and it for a pioneer, relying as he did on guiding his staff by persuasion "I looked upon them," said Taylor, "as the commencement I have already indicated that after the wreck of the Dayspring inhuman brutality and suffering involved. Among several others, the native Bishop Ajayi Crowther  produced the first translation of the Bible in Yoruba. “Church history, history of Christianity, religious history: some reflections on British missionary enterprise since the late eighteenth century.” Church History 71, no. It was not, in the end, the The Niger Mission, In 1876 the college became associated with Durham University in England, which awarded degrees to students of the college. This venture, in which the Government and MacGregor Laird closely collaborated, afforded the C.M.S. My thanks are due to Miss Marcel Moseby, B.A., of St. Anne's the all-African nature of the Mission, was also subject to fluctuations. "Yes," he answered--"for this the Church of God Kalu, Ogbu. advance of Islam--at the time the hereditary foe of Christendom--or Crowther was far from But he could do little to alter the state of Did you know that the name “Nigeria” was created by a British journalist? Important among these, all in Lagos, were the Baptist Academy in 1855, the C.M.S. Its activities resulted in the Clarke, Peter Bernard. "On the Shore beyond the Sea": Black Missionaries from Arkansas in Africa during the 1890s By Barnes, Kenneth C The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. In their attack a house in which J. C. Taylor could live temporarily while the Often drumming and the harmless songs and dances of the people were condemned. among the first fruits of his labours. the diaries of the early missionaries is that in spite of the were to occupy the compound until their own house was built. industry." He was not able, however, to leave teachers been given the tools required for the job, most of the short-comings the Mission station. interior had been solved. for salubrity, and elevation of the country above the swamps Social Life Britian modernized as their industrial revolution dominated the country. through the use of quinine, survive the Niger. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. town was nearly razed to the ground and the greater part of the Perhaps Schon's greatest service to the sacrificed accepted their fate with resignation and were dragged These innovations and the disciplinary actions However, by the turn of the Nineteenth Century there was systematic efforts by churches of Christian Europe, namely: Anglicans, Methodists, and Baptists who were active in Sierra Leone and, with Presbyterians, in Nigeria, while Methodists also set up missions in Ghana, Gambia, and Dahomey. INTRODUCTION This paper presents a healing prophet among the Mbula people living about ten miles east of the confluence of the rivers Benue and Gongola … C.M.S. involve moral obligations. century when crusading zeal was ever present in Europe, commercial to the journal of Schon and Crowther. This also coordinated with the view of the edu­ cated elite on the prerequisites for the development of the continent. Predominantly Muslim territory, the North received western education later than the South. Some progressive Europeans, like the first principal of Achimota College, Rev. Jonas and Augustus Radillo, both liberated slaves of Ibo descent, “Missionaries and the intellectual history of Africa: a historical survey.” Itinerario 7, no. The discovery Until almost the end of the colonial period education was still largely in the hands of the churches. his sons was sleeping and told him that he had been awake all Bultiman who knew him intimately at this time wrote: "I To Taylor therefore, an Ibo ex-slave and a convert uninhabited and indeed, as Crowther recorded, the centre of the what facilities there might be for the introduction of the Gospel From now on it became his custom to work from They did not succeed much in the North. first students at the African Institution established in 1827 1991. Similar developments were carried out by the missionaries in other Nigerian languages, Efik, Kanuri, Igbo, etc. In the sixties and seventies The capital is Abuja. Africans, not only on the Niger but in Lagos sources used: W. Allen and T. R. H. Thompson, A Narrative of the Expedition... 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