[172][173], Four Tankers and a Dog (Czterej pancerni i pies), a very successful war-themed Polish television series of the 1960s, adapted the novel of the same name by the Polish writer Janusz Przymanowski (1922–1998), himself a People's Army of Poland volunteer. [131] During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the T-34-85s were inherited by the national armies of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro and continued to see action during the Yugoslav Wars. [6], There is at least one surviving example in National Armor and Cavalry Museum, Fort Benning, Georgia. A Soviet 85 mm anti-aircraft gun, the 52-K, was found capable of doing the job, and so derivatives of it were developed for tanks. Many T-34-85 tanks first saw action in April 1961 during the Bay of Pigs Invasion with an unknown number destroyed or knocked out during the battle. Although the IJA Type 95 Ha-Go light tanks had diesel engines,[19] the Red Army's T-26 and BT tanks used petrol engines which, while common in tank designs of the time, often burst into flames when hit by IJA tank-killer teams[20] using Molotov cocktails. [137], After the formation of the People's Republic of China (the PRC) in 1949, the Soviet Union sent many T-34-85s to the PRC's People's Liberation Army (the PLA). The series made T-34 tank number 102 an icon of Polish popular culture. [99] The destruction of the Soviet tank force was accomplished not only by the glaring disparity in the tactical and operational skills of the opponents, but also by mechanical defects that afflicted Soviet armour. [127] In 1975, the Soviet Union shipped eighty T-34-85s to Angola as part of its support for the ongoing Cuban military intervention there. [36] Stalingrad kept up production until September 1942. Most of the problems created by the cramped T-34/76 turret, known before the war, were corrected with the provision of a bigger cast three-man turret[81] on the T-34-85 in 1944. Dimensions, road speed and engine horsepower of the various models did not vary significantly, except for the T-43, which was slower than the T-34. [52][53] According to an examination of damaged T-34 tanks in several repair workshops in August to September 1942, collected by the People's Commissariat for Tank Industry in January 1943, 54.3% of all T-34 losses were caused by the German long-barreled 50 mm KwK 39 gun. There were nine ready rounds of ammunition stowed in racks on the sides of the fighting compartment. Following an official protest from the Russian government, the arrest of Černý, a coat of official green paint, public demonstrations, and a further coat of pink paint applied by fifteen parliamentary deputies, the tank was finally removed to a military museum. They can easily be damaged by small-caliber and mortar rounds. The Panzer IV, its closest German equivalent at that time, used narrower track which tended to sink in such conditions. Its 76.2 mm (3 in) tank gun was more powerful than its contemporaries[5] while its 60 degree sloped armour provided good protection against anti-tank weapons. [64] However by 1942 the Germans had increased the hull armour on the Panzer IV to 80mm which provided good protection at normal combat distances. [105] Over 6,000 fully tracked armoured vehicles, 4,000 combat aircraft, and 2 million men are believed to have participated in these battles. [141] By 1987 Castro's request appeared to have been granted, as Cuban tank battalions were able to deploy substantial numbers of T-54Bs, T-55s, and T-62s; the T-34-85 was no longer in service. [94] The inability to penetrate the T-34's armour led to the Germans' standard anti-tank gun, the 37 mm PaK 36, being dubbed the Panzeranklopfgerät ("tank door knocker") because the PaK 36 crew simply revealed their presence and wasted their shells without damaging the T-34's armour. The abundance of gaps in the joints of the armour was seen as an undesirable feature of the tank due to the risk of injury from "entry of bullet splash and shell fragments".[62]. [80], The main weakness [of the two-man turret of a T-34 Model 1941] is that it is very tight. [32], Subassemblies for the T-34 originated at several plants: Kharkov Diesel Factory N.75 supplied the model V-2-34 engine, Leningrad Kirovsky Factory (formerly the Putilov works) made the original L-11 gun, and the Dinamo Factory in Moscow produced electrical components. Analysis from the CIA suggested it was due to "inadequate design" due to the fact that the quality of materials used was not poor. The Germans noted the T-34 was very slow to find and engage targets while the Panzers could typically get off three rounds for every one fired by the T-34. Although during decades of service time there are plenty of modifications that make some visual differences between original T-34-85 and the Chinese T-34-85, and Factory 617 had the ability to produce every single part of T-34-85, there was no single T-34-85 that actually produced in China. [139] In 1975, large quantities of T-34-85s were also donated from the USSR to the FAR to support its lengthy intervention in the Angolan Civil War. In 1943, the Soviets formed Polish and Czechoslovak armies-in-exile, and these started to receive the T-34 Model 1943 with a hexagonal turret. During the Soviet-Afghan War, most of the T-34s were fielded by the Sarandoy internal security forces. The prototype T-43's turret design was hurriedly adopted by Vyacheslav Kerichev at the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory to fit the T-34. [14][156] The Laotian Army retired its T-34s in early 2019 and sold all of them to Russia, where they will be used for public displays and museum exhibits. In March 1989, SWAPO inexplicably moved all its armoured units south towards the Namibian border. Some Russian historians use different names: they refer to the first T-34 as the T-34 Model 1939 instead of 1940, all T-34s with the original turret and F-34 gun as Model 1941 instead of Models 1941 and 1942, and the hexagonal-turret T-34 as Model 1942 instead of 1943. It was recommended to increase and improve the quality of welds and armour. According to the tank’s instruments, it had travelled for 741 km, but the level of wear on the engine was minimal. After improved German Panzer IVs with the high-velocity 75 mm (2.95 in) gun were encountered in combat in 1942, a project to design an entirely new Soviet tank was begun, with the goals of increasing armour protection while adding modern features like a torsion-bar suspension and a three-man turret. ", Honnigfort, Bernhard. When the German Wehrmacht used captured T-34s, it designated them Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r), where the "r" stood for russisch ("Russian"). The two-man turret was "cramped and inefficient"[75] and was inferior to the three-man (commander, gunner, and loader) turret crews of German Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks. [11] Replacing many light and medium tanks in Red Army service, it was the most-produced tank of the war, as well as the second most-produced tank of all time (after its successor, the T-54/T-55 series). Just after midnight on 9 August 1945, though the terrain was believed by the Japanese to be impassable by armoured formations, the Soviet Union invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria. [citation needed]. The production plan of the T-34-85 in China was ended soon after once the PRC received T-54A main battle tanks from the Soviet Union and began to build the Type 59 tank, which was a licensed production version of T-54A. It was equipped with a 76.2mm gun which could fire high explosive armor-piercing shells, a reliable diesel engine, and the toughest possible armor. The 85 mm gun could penetrate the turret front of a Tiger I tank from 500 m (550 yd) and the driver's front plate from 300 m (330 yd) at the side angle of 30 degrees, and the larger turret enabled the addition of another crew member, allowing the roles of commander and gunner to be separated and increasing the rate of fire and overall effectiveness. However the tank also had various defects. [54][55], As the war went on, the T-34 gradually lost some of its initial advantages. Soviet JS-1 Heavy Tank - 001 Ta strona używa plików Cookies. The workers and machinery from Leningrad's Voroshilov Tank Factory N.174 were incorporated into the Ural Factory and the new Omsk Factory N.174. Turret castings, superficial details, and equipment differed between factories; new features were added in the middle of production runs, or retrofitted to older tanks; damaged tanks were rebuilt, sometimes with the addition of newer-model equipment and even new turrets. [5], In 1945, encounters with heavy German tanks and tank destroyers such as the Tiger II and Jagdtiger lead to a new project to counter these new threats. [3] Both were tested in field trials at Kubinka in 1939, with the heavier A-32 proving to be as mobile as the A-20. The Soviets ultimately built over 80,000 T-34s of all variants, allowing steadily greater numbers to be fielded despite the loss of tens of thousands in combat against the German Wehrmacht. To many in Prague, the tank was also a reminder of the Soviet invasion which ended the Prague Spring of 1968. The T-34-85 was called pitkäputkinen Sotka ("long-barreled Sotka").[179]. [7][8], "The museum where the Army's tanks never die, they just get repainted (PHOTOS)", American armored fighting vehicle production during World War II, Prototype armoured fighting vehicles of World War II, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=T34_Heavy_Tank&oldid=995650533, Abandoned military projects of the United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6 (driver, gunner, loader, assistant loader, commander, assistant driver), hull front 102–203 mm (4.0–8.0 in) maximum, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 04:18. 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